exp date isn't null, but text field is

  1. Barnett K, Mercer SW, Norbury M, Watt G, Wyke S, Guthrie B. Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2012;380(9836):37-43.
  2. Kongkaew C, Hann M, Mandal J, Williams S, Metcalfe D, Noyce P, Ashcroft DM. Risk Factors for Hospital Admissions Associated with Adverse Drug Events. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;33(8):827-837
  3. World Health Organization. Quality of care: a process for making strategic choices in health systems. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
  4. Mair A, Fernandez-Limos F, Alonso A, Harrison C, Hurding S, et al. Polypharmacy Management by 2030: a patient safety challenge, 2nd Coimbra: SIMPATHY Consortium, 2017.
  5. Pirmohamed M, James S, Meakin S, Green C, Scott AK, Walley TJ et al. Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients. BMJ. 2004;329(7456):15-19
  6. Medication safety and quality: high-risk medications. Clinical Excellence Commission (, accessed 30 October 2017)
  7. High-risk medicines must be treated with respect. New Zealand: Health, Quality and Safety Commission (, Accessed 30 October 2017)
  8. High-risk drugs list. National Patient Safety Agency. (, accessed 30 October 2017).
  9. ISMP high-alert medications. Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada. (, Accessed 30 October 2017)
  10. High-risk medicines. Tayside Centre for Organisational Effectiveness (, Accessed 30 October 2017)
  11. High-risk medications. Geri-EM: personalized e-learning in geriatric emergency medication (, Accessed 30 October 2017)
  12. High-risk medicines. Government of South Australia (, Accessed 30 October 2017)
  13. Dreischulte T, Donnan P, Grant A, Hapca A, McCowan C, Guthrie B. Safer Prescribing – A Trial of Education, Informatics, and Financial Incentives. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(11):1053-64. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1508955
  14. Sumukadas D, McMurdo M, Mangoni A, Guthrie B. Temporal trends in anticholinergic medication prescription in older people: repeated cross-sectional analysis of population prescribing data. Age and Ageing. 2013;43(4):515-521
  15. Durán C, Azermai M, Vander Stichele R. Systematic review of anticholinergic risk scales in older adults. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;69(7):1485-1496
  16. Nishtala P, Salahudeen M, Hilmer S. Anticholinergics: theoretical and clinical overview. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2016;15(6):753-768
  17. Bishara D, Harwood D, Sauer J, Taylor D. Anticholinergic effect on cognition (AEC) of drugs commonly used in older people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2016;32(6):650-656
  18. Chew M, Mulsant B, Pollock B, Lehman M, Greenspan A, Mahmoud R et al. Anticholinergic Activity of 107 Medications Commonly Used by Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008;56(7):1333-1341
  19. Ehrt U, Broich K, Larsen J, Ballard C, Aarsland D. Use of drugs with anticholinergic effect and impact on cognition in Parkinson's disease: a cohort study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2009;81(2):160-165
  20. Rudolph J. The Anticholinergic Risk Scale and Anticholinergic Adverse Effects in Older Persons. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2008;168(5):508
  21. Sittironnarit G, Ames D, Bush A, Faux N, Flicker L, Foster J et al. Effects of Anticholinergic Drugs on Cognitive Function in Older Australians: Results from the AIBL Study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2011;31(3):173-178
  23. Qaseem A, Wilt T, Kansagara D, Horwitch C, Barry M, Forciea M. Hemoglobin A1c Targets for Glycemic Control With Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonpregnant Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Guidance Statement Update From the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2018
  24. org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Chronic-Pain-in-Scotland-v1-4-Briefing-and-Background-Paper.pdf
  25. PRISMS System NHS Scotland. Based on increase in number of Defined Daily Doses
  26. Advice for prescribers on the risk of the misuse of pregabalin and gabapentin [Internet]. Public Health England; 2014. Available from:
  27. Wills S. Drugs of abuse. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2005
  28. Crime Survey for England and Wales | The Royal College of Anaesthetists [Internet]. Available from:
  29. Benetos A, Labat C, Rossignol P, Fay R, Rolland Y, Valbusa F et al. Treatment With Multiple Blood Pressure Medications, Achieved Blood Pressure, and Mortality in Older Nursing Home Residents. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2015;175(6):989
  30. Hansen ML, Sorensen R, Clausen MT, Fog-Petersen ML, Raunso J, Gadsboll N et al. Risk of bleeding with single, dual, or triple therapy with warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel in patients with atrial fibrillation. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2010; 170(16):1433-41
  31. Laupacis A, Sackett D, Roberts R. An Assessment of Clinically Useful Measures of the Consequences of Treatment. New England Journal of Medicine. 1988;318(26):1728-1733
  32. Cook R, Sackett D. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ. 1995;310(6977):452-454
  33. Hutton J. Number needed to treat and number needed to harm are not the best way to report and assess the results of randomised clinical trials. British Journal of Haematology. 2009;146(1):27-30
  34. Musini V, Tejani A, Bassett K, Wright J. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009
  35. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme W, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A et al. The Effect of Spironolactone on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Severe Heart Failure. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;341(10):709-717
  36. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. The Lancet. 1999;353(9146):9-13
  37. Packer M, Coats A, Fowler M. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. ACC Current Journal Review. 2001;10(6):49
  38. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in-Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). The Lancet. 1999;353(9169):2001-2007
  39. Flather M, Shibata M, Coats A, Van Veldhuisen D, Parkhomenko A, Borbola J et al. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). European Heart Journal. 2005;26(3):215-225
  40. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an Angiotensin-Converting–Enzyme Inhibitor, Ramipril, on Cardiovascular Events in High-Risk Patients. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;342(18):1376-1376
  41. Yusuf S, Teo K, Anderson C, Pogue J, Dyal L, Copland et al. Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE intolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease (TRANSCEND) investigators. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2008; 372: 1174-1183
  42. The Consensus Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1987; 316(23): 1429-1435
  43. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325(5): 293-302
  44. Bowling C.B., Sanders P.W., Allman R.M., Rogers W.J et al. Effects of enalapril in systolic heart failure patients with and without chronic kidney disease: Insights from the SOLVD Treatment trial. International Journal of Cardiology. 2013; 167 (1): 151-156
  45. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1992; 327 (10): 685 – 691
  46. Granger C, McMurray J, Yusuf S, Held P, Michelson E. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial. The Lancet. 2003; 362: 772-776
  47. PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. The Lancet. 2001; 358: 1033-42
  48. Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation ( the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA) : a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 493 – 503
  49. Granger CB et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365: 981-92
  50. Connolly SJ et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patient with atrial fibrillation. The New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 361: 1139-51
  51. Giugliano RP et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England Journal of Medicine 2013; 369: 2093-2104
  52. Patel MR et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 883-91
  53. ATT Collaboration. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009; 373: 1849-60.
  54. Antithrombotic trialists collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, MI and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002;358:71-86
  55. McGrath E et al. Validity of composite outcomes in meta-analyses of stroke prevention trials: the case of aspirin.  Cerebrovascular Diseases 2011; 32(1):22-7.
  56. The Cochrane Collaboration. Dipyridamole for preventing stroke and other vascular events in patients with vascular disease. The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3
  57. Dipyridamole for preventing stroke and other vascular events in patients with vascular disease. The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3
  58. The Cochrane Collaboration. Thienopyridine derivatives versus aspirin for preventing stroke and other serious vascular events in high vascular risk patients. The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4
  59. The Cochrane Collaboration. Interventions in the management of serum lipids for preventing stroke recurrence. The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3
  60. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837-53.
  61. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). 1998; 352: 854-65
  62. ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560-2572
  63. Alendronate for the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. Wells GA, Cranney A, Peterson J, Boucher M, Shea B, Welch V, Coyle D, Tugwell P. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001155. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001155.pub2
  64. Pirmohamed M et al. Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18,820 patients. BMJ 2004;329:15-19 61
  65. Howard R, Avery A, Slavenburg S, Royal S, Pipe G, Lucassen P et al. Which drugs cause preventable admissions to hospital? A systematic review. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2007;63(2):136-14